A stress fracture is a small crack in a bone caused by overuse from high impact sports. Studies show that athletes participating in tennis, track and field, gymnastics, dance, and basketball are at high risk for stress fractures. In all of these sports, the repeated stress of the foot striking the ground can cause problems. Most stress fractures occur in the weight-bearing bones of the foot and lower leg. When muscles are overtired, they are no longer able to lessen the shock of repeated impacts. When this happens, the muscles transfer the stress to the bones. This can create small cracks or fractures. The key way to heal a stress fracture is to rest the injured area. When recovering, it is important to take everything at a slow pace.
Knock Knees – This is where the individual’s knees face inward. It is hard or not possible for their heels to touch when their knees are touching in a normal parallel position. A person with knock knees is more likely to have issues with pronation. These dancers have to think hard about their weight being over the center of their foot and also pay close attention to getting the knees over the toes in the plie position.
Bow Legs – This happens when a person’s knees do not touch when their heel can. With this issue, the dancer’s weight goes over the outside of their foot, so they have to be careful not to roll their ankle. There is a good side to this one in that their legs most of the time look more turned out than you are.
Hyper-extended knees – These are knees that seem to bend backward or “over straighten”. This type if knee is favored in ballet because it makes each line look beautiful. These type of knees are very prone to injury because they tend to be weak. It is important to strengthen the thighs and quads to support the knees.
Hypo-extended Knees – This type of knee will not straighten no matter how hard the dancer tries. This knee is undesirable for dancers, but putting the body at slightly different angles can help to compensate for the disadvantage of their knee structure.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to change the shape of your knees, so it is important to learn how to dance with what you’ve got.
Dancers strive to have great turnout, which is the outward rotation of the hips to get their feet in as close of a straight line as possible. This goal is reached through a mix of hard work and just whether or not you body is built that way. There are many muscles in the hip that can help to gain better turnout.
The largest, most obvious muscle is the buttocks, which includes the large gluteal muscles such as hip extenders and external rotators. These muscles are in charge of bigger movements including lifting the leg to an arabesque position. The muscles in charge of turnout are the deep lateral rotators, which are small and burried under the gluteus maximus. There are six lateral rotator muscles, which are attached to different parts of the pelvis. They all then run laterally, joining the back of the hip joint capsule and the
ischiofemoral ligament. They all attach on or next to the greater trochanter of the femur. In addition to the six lateral rotators and the gluteus maximus, there are more muscles around the hip that also contribute to external rotation. The sartorius is an external rotator (hip flexor) that is thought to be particularly active when the hip is flexed inpositions such as a passé or front attitude. The adductor muscles on the inner thigh may contribute to external rotation as well. Straightening the legs from the bottom of plié is a good example of using adductors in outward rotation. The function of all six deep rotator muscles is to laterally rotate or turn out the leg, relative to the pelvis. It is hard for a dancer to isolate these particular muscles, which is why it is so difficult to attain flawless technique.
The majority of turnout comes from the hip joint, but there is also a bit that comes from the knee and the ankle. The maximum capacity of a dancers’ turnout comes from their personal strength and flexibility in the joints and muscles in these three areas of importance.